Data Rooms allow Samus to download new power-up data from the Galactic Federation in Metroid Fusion. Biologic Space Labs and the Galactic Federation have shown through the Power Bomb that data in the Data Rooms can be modified from outside the research station. These stations were likely here to allow crew members to upgrade their equipment as newer models were available.
The Data Rooms in Metroid Fusion allow Samus to download upgrades. There are multiple Data Rooms throughout the B.S.L station. After Samus makes herself a real threat to the X, they begin destroying any of the Data Rooms they can get at. Interestingly, the X are also capable of downloading the data instead of Samus, as demonstrated by the Mega Core-X's absorption of Varia Suit data.
Samus using a Data Room in Metroid Fusion